Der Blaue Reiter on Form

Category : Art · No Comments · by Nov 23rd, 2017

“And so as a last conclusion, it must be established that it is not most important whether the form is personal, national, or has style; whether or not it is in accordance with the major contemporary movements; whether or not it is related to many or few other forms; whether or not it stands completely by itself: but rather the most important thing in the question of form is whether or not the form has grown out of the inner necessity. The greater the epoch is–that is, the greater (quantitatively and qualitatively) the strivings toward the spiritual are–the richer in number the forms become.”

From “On the Problem of Form”:

Ivan Galamian on Renowned Violinists

Category : Art, Music · No Comments · by May 19th, 2016

Came across this text in Ivan Galamian’s “Principles of Violin Playing & Teaching”. Ivan Galamian is a world-renowned violin teacher who has instructed the likes of Itzhak Perlman and Joshua Bell. I’m surprised that this text is nowhere to be found on the internet, so I decided to transcribe a copy (emphasis in the original):

One student asked, “When there are so many fantastic violinists, why is it that so few of them become world famous as soloists?” Mr. Galamian’s thoughtful reply to this question follows:

“It is because, to become world famous, talent and genius are not enough. One has to be endowed with a brilliant mind that can work like lightning; with an ability to concentrate for long periods of time; with the personal drive, willpower, and perseverance to do the necessary years of preparation; and with the hands and innate muscular qualities of flexibility that makes possible the brilliant technique required. Further, musicality, the fine ear, must be innate; the personality should have appeal for the universal audience, and a high degree of personal magnetism must be present to carry the audience along, musically and emotionally. There must be musical understanding, creativeness, and imagination in the interpretation. It is only rarely in a generation that all of these things come together in one person. The lack of any single factor may prevent the achieving of world-renowned status.”

Pure Land in Bullet Hell

Category : Art, Games · No Comments · by Sep 3rd, 2015


A collection of mini-essays as a homage to Touhou scorerunners. Generalizable to shmups, and to a degree some other mediums. For the uninitiated, a taste of scorerunning can be found here.

I. Man vs. self

Shmups embody the essence of the man versus the self. In few other genres are one-coin clears so emphasized, and mistakes so obvious to the gamer. The score mechanic, a decoration in most genres, thrives in shmups. The score in no uncertain terms communicate to you the worth of your play.

Other games are like miniature gardens, shmups are like miniature mountains. Their towering difficulty challenges all that passes. Most don’t heed it and continue their way. Some do. They stop in their tracks, beholds the peak of the mountain, dream up a journey to the top, and dedicate a part of their life to it.

In 2008 Kuro, a score-runner in Perfect Cherry Blossom, posted a screenshot showing over 2500 hours of gameplay spread over more than 36000 sessions.

II. What do you want?

I had once considered scorerunning in Touhou. Not far into the attempt, I realized that in order to do what I truly wanted to do, I could not afford to seek high scores. It’s the first time I realized that I can’t want and get every lofty goal in life.

In April 2010, AM, a renowned virtuoso in the Touhou scorerunning scene, quit scorerunning to reclaim other aspects of his life.

III. Ability and wisdom

The impressive players of the game are not always wise. In 2011, the Chinese Touhou community outed score-runner MSH when it became apparent that he had cheated to obtain world records. The ousting was a public one, as MSH had cultivated many followers at the time.

The truth is, MSH is a better player than you and I. He has the talent. But talent does not correlate with conduct.

Talent, creativity, persistence, perfectionism. Which ones make you nice, and which ones don’t? In the end, their score reveals little.

IV. Ruthlessness

My old replays have a certain degree of ruthlessness to it.

When I had a goal in mind, I would ignore other conventions of “good plays”, instead abusing safespots, neglecting score, and otherwise bombing enemy patterns on sight to reduce the difficulty of the run.

Legendary player GIL was known to exaggerate his handicap for already-difficult challenges in order to produce awe-inspiring replays. In some ways I was the opposite of that.

I noticed that recently I’ve been playing shmups less ruthlessly. But I actually liked my old style.

V. Wholesome

Great score improvements in Touhou are made in billions. For the first years of a game, the high scores tend to barely pass certain thresholds: 42 billion,  52 billion, 21 billion, 10.1 billion.

This is because the pioneers has no one else to look up to, so they ask: is 30 billion achievable? What about 50 billion? They plot up a path and inevitably achieve their first milestones. New challengers seek to beat the best score, devising their own improvements on top of those milestones. They don’t ask “is 50 billion achievable?” but “how do I beat the current world-record?” Thus, world-records have a tendency to grows slower after passing certain milestones.

Eventually, when the state of art is near perfection, someone comes along and asks “what’s the theoretical maximum? This is the case when coa reached a score of 1.00002 billion in Mountain of Faith extra mode, 0.1% away from the theoretical maximum of 1.0001 billion.

VI. Creativity

A good replay is largely about execution, but sometimes creativity trumps. In this way, scorerunning is a bit like an art form.

In the demo days of Subterranean Animism, a player named UnKnown started submitting replays with innovative strategies, and consequently besting the then-highest scores by huge margins. But he did this to his own replays too, submitting new replays under alias like “U.N.None”, “#unexist”, and ” ” (blank) that introduce innovations on top of his own.

From one of his alias, “tongrentang”, we could trace him to the Chinese scorerunning community. Perhaps some top Chinese players know of his/her identity. But the alias seems to suggest that in the end, who it is doesn’t matter.

VII. Finding pure land

To score-run in Touhou is to stand between life and death. Most Touhou games have a “graze” mechanic, which rewards players for hovering near bullets (so-called graze zone). Most high-scores have tens of thousands of grazes, meaning tens of thousands of intentional almost-deaths.

The graze zone is a harsh and hostile habitat. Imperfections must be purged. The replays discretely showcase the scorerunner’s ability to survive under hostility.

But the players thrive and rejoice under such hostilities. They chose it over the leisure that most media affords, and devote thousands of hours to exploring the world and reaching for perfection. It’s a strangely haunting vision of what the world can be – a place of discipline, self-improvement, tackling limits, striving for the seemingly-possible – a pure land.

VIII. Monuments never-ending

The hundreds of replays on the Touhou high-score board and thousands made in an attempt to reach it are made permanent by the advent of the digital age. Even as a mild shmup player, I can trace the thoughts of the players as they weave through the bullets and improvise under unexpected conditions. These players are no doubt fully concentrated, and the replays capture their thoughts across brief moments in time.

But to earn that privilege to be seen, studied, acknowledged, admired, you must surpass all others before you and ascend to the top. Even then, there is no absolute security. No perfect replays has even been produced, no one has ever done everything that can be done. As long as Touhou is played. The monument of these scoreruns will inevitably be replaced by the scoreruns of the next generation of challengers.

In October 2010, Jack attained 1.002 billion in Mountain of Faith extra, breaking coa’s theoretical limit of 1.001 billion. In the comments section, he conjectures that 1.003 billion is theoretically possible.